Beyond the Label
The “off-label” benefits of using fluoride varnish for caries prevention
Dentists and hygienists have been applying high-concentration fluoride compounds directly to patients’ teeth for over 50 years. Interestingly, there has been an uptick in the number of fluoride varnishes being introduced in the last several years. According to the FDA, varnish is indicated for use as a desensitizer and cavity liner, but many are recognizing its “off-label” use as a topical fluoride treatment. With all the fluoride products and delivery systems on the market, does fluoride varnish measure up?
FLUORIDE GEL AND FOAM
The most widely used fluoride application in dental practices is 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel (Sheehan 2001). In 1993, 1.23% APF foam hit the market. It is claimed to deliver the same protection as APF gel with 75 percent less fluoride, which lessens the risk of a toxic amount being accidentally swallowed. However, some research has shown that both foam and gel deliver the same amount of fluoride.
First introduced in the 1960s under the trade name Duraphat, sodium fluoride varnish is relatively inexpensive, easily applied to exposed root surfaces, and prolongs contact time between fluoride and enamel, thereby achieving deeper fluoride uptake (Sheehan 2001). The benefits of fluoride varnishes also include long-term fluoride release and a higher delivery of fluoride into cementum. Varnish has been used as an effective anticaries agent in Europe and Canada for over three decades (Sheehan 2001). It has not yet been approved for use in this capacity in the United States; rather, it has been cleared by the FDA for use as a desensitizing agent and cavity liner. Caries prevention is regarded as a drug claim, and companies would be required to submit appropriate clinical trial evidence for review before this product could be marketed as an anticaries agent.
That being said, fluoride varnish is still an effective caries prevention solution. According to CDC Recommendations, a prescribing practitioner can use fluoride varnish for caries prevention as an “off-label” use. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry emphasized in a 1996 recommendation, “Unapproved does not imply an illegal use. The word unapproved is used merely to indicate lack of approval, not to imply disapproval or contraindication based on positive evidence of a lack of safety or efficacy.”
“Although varnishes are not FDA-approved as a topical fluoride treatment […] many studies show they are clinically as effective, if not more so, than APF treatments.”
– Dr. Timothy Wright, Professor of Pediatric Dentistry, University of North Carolina
Several reviews of the use of fluoride therapies in preventing dental caries have been published since the year 2000, including 2 evidence-based reports. The Cochrane reviews of this topic concluded, “Fluoride varnishes applied professionally two to four times a year would substantially reduce tooth decay in children.” In addition, an expert panel of the American Dental Association recently concluded, “Fluoride varnish applications take less time, create less patient discomfort and achieve greater patient acceptability than fluoride gels, especially in preschool-aged children.”
Studies examining the effectiveness of varnish in controlling early childhood caries are currently being conducted in the United States. More research on fluoride varnish is likely to continue in both Europe and North America to determine optimal fluoride concentration, the most effective application protocols, and its efficacy relative to other fluoride modalities (CDC 2001).
AVAILABLE VARNISH PRODUCTS
PureLife offers the top brands of fluoride varnish, including Vanish by 3M ESPE, NUPRO White Varnish by Dentsply Professional, DuraShield CV by Sultan Healthcare, Duraflor Halo by Medicom, and the BPA-free Embrace Varnish by Pulpdent. To learn more about these great products, call our product experts at 877-777-3303.
The Grime Fighter’s Secret Weapon
Fight bacteria with the antimicrobial powers of chlorhexidine
You probably know chlorhexidine as the active ingredient in mouthwashes and oral rinses. It’s approved by the FDA and the ADA for control of plaque and gingivitis, and studies have reported plaque and gingivitis reductions averaging 60%. In addition to its use in oral rinses, did you know that chlorhexidine gluconate is a powerful disinfectant and preservative? Here’s an overview of this safe, effective, and versatile “superchemical.”
HOW IT WORKS
Chlorhexidine is a broad-spectrum biocide effective against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Depending on its concentration, the molecule can kill bacteria as well as inhibit bacterial growth, providing a residual effect. Chlorhexidine inactivates microorganisms with a broader spectrum than other antimicrobials (e.g., antibiotics) and has a quicker kill rate than other antimicrobials (e.g., povidone-iodine) — killing nearly 100% of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria within 30 seconds after application. And, with its low toxicity level, chlorhexidine is a safe treatment option that produces little side effects.
BENEFITS AND USES
Chlorhexidine has been used in more than 60 different pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Its wide application is due to its broad-spectrum efficacy, safety profile and substantivity on the skin with low irritation. Chlorhexidine is widely used as a disinfectant in a range of healthcare products, including:
- Oral rinses, toothpastes and varnishes
- Hard surface disinfectants
- Dental unit waterline disinfectants
- Evacuation system cleaners
- Endodontic irrigation solutions
- Hand sanitizers and lotions
- Hand washing solutions
- Wound and burn care products
- Central venous catheters and needleless IV connectors
Chlorhexidine has become the gold standard in dentistry due to its ability to adhere to soft and hard tissue and maintain a potent sustained release. In oral applications, chlorhexidine binds to the mouth tissue, oral mucosa and teeth. It is then released over time to kill bacteria and fungi. This helps to reduce the bacterial count and prevents dental plaque. In hard surface applications, products with chlorhexidine in combination with alcohol have been shown to be more effective than alcohol alone. Chlorhexidine has also been applied to medical devices such as dental implants, vascular catheters, needleless connectors and antimicrobial dressings.
EXPERIENCE THE POWER
Try the amazing bactericidal, virucidal, and fungicidal properties of chlorhexidine for yourself! PureLife carries a wide range of safe and effective products containing chlorhexidine, including BioSURF Surface Disinfectant, BioVAC Evacuation System Cleaner, oral rinses and endodontic solutions.